Review paper on immune checkpoint proteins that orchestrate the chronic inflammation underlying atherosclerosis
Interactions between different immune cells result in the secretion of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, and fuel atherogenesis. Immune checkpoint proteins have a critical role in facilitating immune cell interactions and play an essential role in the development of atherosclerosis. Although the therapeutic potential of these molecules is wellrecognized in clinical oncology, the use of immune checkpoint modulators in atherosclerosis is still limited to experimental models. Here, we review recent insights on the role of immune checkpoint proteins in atherosclerosis. Additionally, we explore the therapeutic potential and challenges of immune checkpoint modulating strategies in cardiovascular medicine and we discuss novel therapeutic approaches to target these proteins in atherosclerosis.
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